Water as Microscope of Nature

Leonardo da Vinci's Codex Leicester

Manuscript F, ff. 14v-15r The theoretical reflections and the principles of the science of water set out in the Codex Leicester inspired Leonardo to develop ingenious practical applications. Using the principle of the rise in water level in vortex movements, he designs an innovative centrifugal pump for drying marshes and swamps near the sea. He draws on the general laws of mechanics to engineer various types of systems for building underwater foundations for bridges, dams, and weirs that would be more stable than traditional models. He comes up with brilliant solutions to regulate the quantity and velocity of water drawn from siphons of various shapes and materials.